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Sensor Fusion: A Revolution in Motion Processing


Gyroscopes, accelerometers, and compasses are increasingly prevalent in mainstream consumer electronics. Applications of these sensors include user interface, augmented reality, gaming, image stabilization, and navigation. This talk will demonstrate how all three sensor types work separately and in conjunction on a modified Android handset running a modified sensor API, then explain how algorithms are used to enable a multitude of applications.

Application developers who wish to make sense of rotational motion must master Euler angles, rotation matrices, and quaternions. Under the hood, sensor fusion algorithms must be used in order to create responsive, accurate, and low noise descriptions of motion. Reducing sensing errors involves compensating for temperature changes, magnetic disturbances, and sharp accelerations. Some of these algorithms must run at a very high rate and with very precise timing, which makes them difficult to implement within low-power real-time operating systems. Within Android specifically, this involves modifying the sensor manager, introducing new APIs, and partitioning motion processing tasks.

David Sachs began developing motion processing systems as a graduate student at the MIT Media Lab. His research there led him to InvenSense, where he continues this work with MEMS inertial sensors used in products such as the Nintendo Wii Motion Plus. David’s designs incorporate gyroscopes, accelerometers, and compasses in various combinations and contexts including handset user interfaces, image stabilizers, navigation systems, game controllers, novel Braille displays, and musical instruments.

Vipresh Gangwal, Robocon 2007

About ME:

Engineering, with Electronics and Telecommunication as my major. I study in Maharashtra Institute of
Tech.(MIT) Pune, a college under the University of Pune.

I was born on August 16th 1987 in Mumbai and was brought up in Jalgaon, a city in the North of
Maharashtra state of India. Then I was fortunate enough to get admitted into a college like MIT, which
stands in the top ten private technical schools of India.

I belong to a family where my Father, Mr Vijay Gangwal is a businessman and mother Mrs Pratima
Gangwal is a Chartered Accountant. My younger brother, Prany is in high school.

My Passion:

Robotics has been my passion since my first year. In the last three years I have worked

on about four robotic projects and presented a paper on robotics too. The project s and paper together
had got some four to five national level prizes. My journey in robotics has been driven by the zeal and
passion that I have for robots and technology. Read more

DESIGN OF MANUAL ROBOT 2007

INTRODUCTION:

                                      Manual robot consist of  triangular body which is stable. It has bottom triangular frame to which 3 wheels are connected at 3 ends. On this frame on 2 sides 2 racks is to be fitted along with dc motor. With this rack pinion gets engaged and have vertical movement. To this rack & pinion arrangement Al bars are connected which are fitted to hands of robot.
                                     Same design of hands to be made on 2 sides of rectangular frame which will increase its efficiency. So at a time 4 blocks can be loaded on it.
                                      For wheels the connection is to be made with front wheel.

ASSEMBLY OF MANUAL ROBOT

 

1
Rack
2
Block holding jaw
3
Gripping jaw
4
Supporting member for blocks
5
Triangular base
6
Wheels
       Explanation of different parts of robot and material used is explained below-

1.     Design of Picking & Placing Mechanism for the Blocks:

For  picking and placing of blocks the mechanism used is as shown:
It consist of 3 main parts:
1.      As shown above link indicated by no.1 is rectangular  bar having design like a hand.
Distance between 2 hands is 300mm.
2.      No.2 shown is design to hold the blocks. It is the vertical bar having length 400mm. so it can  hold 2 blocks .
3.      No.3 shown is design to support the blocks. When robot will pick the block this 2 bars give support to it. Also 2 bars attached to link 1 is for support.

2.     Gripping of Blocks In the Jaw:

                As shown above to hold the blocks in jaw design made is indicated by no2. It is made of thin plastic bar so it will be flexible & easy to grip.

3.     Lifting of a Jaw:

                To lift the above mechanism “Rack & Pinion” arrangement is to be used. This is more accurate than pulleys , ropes etc. We can lift  the blocks at desired levels as per requirement.

4.     Drive Mechanism of Machine:

              Direct motor drive is to be used. Motor is to be connected directly 2 rack.
            It is less complicated and easy to connect.

     5. Motors:

                           While selecting a motor d.c. compound motor should be selected. It gives good speed variation. Also it can be directly connected with rack.

     6. Material:

                           Body of the robot is to be made with aluminium.
Hand mechanism is also be made with Al  while holding jaw with  thin plastic.  Also supporting bars to be made with plastic. Mating sections of body is tighten with screws.                                   

      7. Wheels:

                          No of wheels of robot are 3. They are similar to the trollys used for comps , tv’s etc.
                           They can bare more load & so safe to use.
1
Front wheel
2
Base frame
3
Rear axle
4
Rear wheel
In this 2 rear wheels are connected with axle. Front wheel is connected with manual controls. So when front wheel rotates rear wheels will follow it. axle is screwed to base frame.

8. Motor Mountings:

                         Dc motor to be used is directly connected with rack on same bar. Battery used to operate dc motor.

NINAD SUDHIR NIJSURE

                                                                                                         T.E. MECHANICAL

Electronics Assignment for Robocon 2007

Introduction:
This assignment describes the electronic components to be used and their
integration with mechanical parts for the working of the autonomous
machines.
Block Diagram of electronic control:
Sensor Signal Condn. Microcontroller H-bridge Motor

Sensor:
The sensor is used to get inputs from the surroundings, specifically in our
case, to: 1. Follow a predefined path by differentiating between blue
background and white lines, and 2. To correctly pick up and place the
blocks.
For line tracing, a circuit employing light dependent electronic devices
(photodiode, phototransistor or IR Tx-Rx) has to be used.
For block pick-up and placement, proximity sensors or contact switches may
be used.

Signal Conditioning Circuit:

The output of the sensors is in the form of analog voltage or current, and this
has to be converted into logic voltage levels compatible with the
microcontroller. A simple rail-to-rail operating comparator may be used. Use
of a Schmitt trigger circuit provides some immunity to noise and is
recommended. The following circuit is a single power supply Schmitt trigger
circuit operating at +5V and it gives output compatible to TTL levels.
In this circuit, the analog output of the sensor is given to the input terminal
of the comparator (1/4 IC LM339). Depending on crossing of threshold
levels of the Schmitt trigger, the output is practically obtained as +4.98V
(high) and +0.34V (low). This is compatible with the logic levels for TTL.
The threshold values for this circuit are +1.1V and +2.9V. These can be
adjusted by changing the values of R1, R2 and R3 according to given
formula. Read more

Robocon 2011 Report

Robocon is an international tournament based on robotics, with individual domestic

contests in each of its participating countries from Asia. The MIT Tech Team was formed in
2005 to represent MIT in the national Robocon. Since then, the team has shown tremendous
progress.
MIT was the finalist in 2008, and also the only team to complete the theme three times.
In 2010, MIT won the National Robocon resoundingly, competing against premier teams such as
IIT- Bombay, IIT-Delhi, IIt-Madras, VIT, NIRMA Institute etc. Thus far, MIT has represented
India in the International Robocon twice.
Our performance in Robocon 2011 was also strong, but due to some unforeseen errors in
the power circuitry, we could only reach up to the semifinals. However, preparations are now on
in earnest for Robocon 2012 under the able guidance of Prof S.G. Kulkarni and Prof
S.R.Yeolekar. The sources of inspiration for the team are Prof V.D. Karad sir, Prof P.B. Joshi sir
(our mentor) and Prof G.N. Mulay sir.

Read more

2012 Game Rules

2012 Game Rules

1. Robot Set Up 

1.1 One Manual Robot, one Automatic Robot and one Collector Robot are required for each team.

1.2 One minute is given for setting of robots before the game starts.

1.3 Only the three registered members of each team, including the Manual Robot Operator, can engage in the setting up of robots. Any team that fails to complete setting of the robots within one minute can resume the setting process once the game starts.

Read more

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